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Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature and the physical world. They employ mathematical and scientific principles to investigate phenomena, to acquire new knowledge, or to clarify and correct previous knowledge. Many scientists work in laboratories or out in the field.
Scientists are distinct from engineers who design, build and maintain devices for specific situations. Science that is done with a goal to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of nature, society, or industry is called applied science. An applied scientist, rather than designing something in particular, conducts research with the aim of developing new technologies and practical methods.
Scientists need to be curious, analytical, and detail-oriented. Aspiring scientists should have at least a Bachelor of Science degree in a scientific branch of interest. A master’s degree or Ph.D. is needed for many research and teaching jobs. Types of scientists include the following (and within each of which there are many sub-specialties):
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